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Models in which it is stated that they have solved this task are far from achieving the goal. In their work, Fleischmann and Pons drew attention to the fact that they have tritium (T) recorded, as compared with neutrons, 11–14 orders of magnitude more than with the classical d d reaction. We now consider Table 2, in which nickel, palladium, titanium, zirconium and niobium are compared in density, content in the earth’s crust, heat capacity, thermal conductivity and cost of these metals. It is obvious that titanium clearly stands out against the background of other metals: it is the lightest of all, in the earth’s crust it is the most, its heat capacity and thermal conductivity are rather small, and its cost is low. This feature has a titanium, which has been undeservedly ignored in recent studies on cold nuclear fusion. On the left – the high-pressure gas part, on the right – an experimental cell with detectors. Dollezhal engaged in the creation of nuclear energy facilities and installations for military and civil purposes. 34), at which at the maximum an excess heat emission of 500 watts from a titanium sample weighing 35.7 grams was obtained. The result was 12.26 W / g of titanium – this is 4.7 times higher than in the first experiments.
” At many subsequent international conferences, it was noted that the creation of the theory of nuclear reactions in condensed matter is a task of paramount importance. If we take into account this increase in tritium yield in their reaction, confirmed later by the work of the Indian nuclear scientists, who had 7–11 orders of magnitude more tritium output than the neutron yield, then the energy per gram of molecular deuterium is 96.57 GJ/g . Metal hydrides were very well researched in the 1960s. It is comparable to the cost of nickel, but in terms of its prevalence in the crust, even no attention should be paid to nickel. On the basis of the equipment and materials that we prepared for the high-pressure hydrogen complex, in April 1989, the first experimental setup was created to obtain nuclear fusion reactions in deuterated titanium (Fig. Let me remind you that this story takes place at the Sredmash Research Institute (Ministry of Medium Machine-Building of the USSR), at the Sverdlovsk branch of the Research and Design Institute of Power Engineering (SF NIKIET), which is the site of the experimental reactor of the Moscow NIKIET them. We expected that we could get very high deuterium pressure, for which a special container was prepared at the facility. It turns out that the amount of heat generated by increasing the mass of the working sample also increases.
The ratio of Helium-3 / Helium-4 in the products of the experiments was 44,000 times higher than atmospheric. Its first hypotheses of simultaneous course of processes of synthesis and disintegration are reflected in the publication at a conference in Nagoya. Karabut modernized the glow discharge installation for estimation of thermal effect. “Examinations” were frankly “custom-made”, which later became clear, thanks to the investigation of Eugene Mallove. The amount of energy released in a certain amount of a substance with different methods of production. If you calibrate the external heater and install a constant current source, you can measure the amount of heat released from our sample without a Peltier calorimeter or a flow calorimeter.
These and many other results were not published in peer-reviewed journals, but mainly in the materials of international and national conferences. Even 23 years after the first report of a new phenomenon in the obituary about the death of Martin Fleischman in the authoritative journal Nature, it was written: “… They competently gathered a measuring chain for registration of neutrons and gamma. Even the accusations against Fleischmann and Pons, that they held a conference before they published a scientific article and allegedly deceived their co-author Professor Steven Jones, did not correspond to reality. With the complete burning of oil or coal, 11.6 k Wh / kg is obtained. In the same Nuremberg cycle of experiments, another very interesting mode of continuous release of excess heat was discovered, which I called self-oscillatory.
Yoshiaki Arata and Yui-Chang Zhang found an excess heat yield of 200–500 MJ / cm3 and the formation of a significant amount of helium in a deuterated palladium black placed in a closed palladium ampoule, which served as a cathode for 5,000 hours of electrochemical experiments. Experimental evidence of nuclear reactions in the Earth’s core. Jean-Pierre Vejie after our reports at a conference in Donetsk visited our laboratory. After the visit to laboratory He suggested to publish our article in Physics Letters. By 1991, pressure was exerted on the troublemakers so that Martin Fleischmann returned to Britain, and Stanley Pons had to resign from the University of Utah and move to work in France, having emigrated from the United States. This may be a complex of some elements – this is not one isotope. Change heater power The external heater has a certain capacity and heats the sample to 590 ° C.
It should be specially noted that the Helium-3 / Helium-4 ratio in the experimental products was 4–5 orders of magnitude higher than atmospheric. At that time He was some of their editors of this magazine. On the history of Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons’ harassment, I wrote an article that was published on December 12, 2017 in IA REGNUM entitled “”, in which, I think, I was able to show that it was not a scientific criticism, but a harassment, the initiators of which didn’t disdain from either outright lies or purposeful falsification of results during the reproduction of the experiment. Further, when the sample was heated, such an interesting feature was noticed as the change in the power of the external heater. But when deuterium is injected, then a large energy release from the sample begins, and the power of the heater increases. Due to the fact that the temperature of the heater itself and its resistance increase.
Neutron-free reactions require even higher plasma temperatures and much more expensive reactors. Materials of the 22nd Russian Conference on Cold Transmutation of Cores of Chemical Elements and Ball Lightning, p. So in places where defects and inhomogeneities accumulate, there can be a change in the density of the of bombarding ions and a change in the electric field strength to high voltages leading to a microexplosion. This beam strikes a beam of accelerated deuterium nuclei, which with low probability can react with tritium nuclei. According to calculations, the excess heat that should have been released in these reactions should give the intensity of the neutron source: Neutron = 3.86 × 10^5 neutron / sec.
According to the technical conditions, the thermonuclear reaction can be maintained only in large-volume reactors. In the resulting pores in the process of ion bombardment, the pressure can increase to hundreds of atmospheres. Proc., ICCF5, Monte-Carlo, 1995, p.209-212; p.213-222 [.pdf] 7. The information of the correspondent is not enough to make a conclusion about the reliability of the discovery. But we register: Ireg = 180 neutron / sec This is 1869.5 times less than it should be according to calculations. It is possible that most neutrons are simply absorbed inside the titanium sample, which gives us excess heat.
Given the enormous cost of the project, the life of the reactors due to the strong neutron flux, judging by the experience of operating less powerful tokamaks, will be only a few months. Results of measurement of excess energy in a deuterium heat generator. Therefore, a single theory or hypothesis cannot explain the whole set of processes. For example, neutron generators use a metal target saturated with tritium located at room temperature. Q1) / Q1 = 7.70 That is, it turns out that only one millionth of the absorbed deuterium is used to obtain the observed excess heat. There is one more interesting point to which attention should be paid in these studies.
Most authors were limited to assumptions made in qualitative form. The first channel is the formation of helium-3 (3He) with a neutron (n) with the release of 3.27 Me V of energy, and the second channel with the formation of tritium (T) and a proton (p) with the release of 4.033 Me V of energy. In this book there is a special periodic table, which shows which metal hydrides can form and in what quantities they can absorb hydrogen (Fig. It can be seen from this table that titanium, zirconium and niobium form binary hydrides in which there are up to two hydrogen atoms per metal atom, and, say, palladium and nickel hydrides per metal atom can absorb no more than one hydrogen atom. But in the end, all the same, there remains excess heat equal to 14% – this is quite a lot. That is, this is a significant heat release that can be converted and used as heat or as electricity.
In a survey , the theorists of the United States and Russia concluded: “Despite considerable efforts, it was not possible to create a theory of cold nuclear fusion that quantitatively or even qualitatively describes experimental results. For this classical nuclear fusion reaction, when the first and second channels are equally probable, the amount of released energy per gram of molecular deuterium is 87.45 GJ/g (G is Giga = 10^9), which is much less than given in Table 1 (423 GJ/g). Thus, it became obvious the advantage of working with titanium in comparison with palladium: titanium absorbs twice the amount of hydrogen, and, consequently, the fusion reactions could be expected at least twice as much. Comparison of Pd, Ti, Ni, Zr and Nb according to several characteristics. Calculation of excess heat generation during the formation of titanium hydride from the article “Titanium and hydrogen” by Yu. If we calculate the excess power factor, that is, the ratio of heat expended (120.5 kcal) to excess heat (16.7 kcal), then this will be slightly more than seven. The first installation of 1989 for the study of cold nuclear fusion in SF NIKIET. * * * In the summer of 2018 in Estonia, I managed to create a new installation (Fig.
They argued that during electrolysis of lithium salt solutions in heavy water, a yield of neutrons and excess energy of about 1 watt was observed at the palladium electrode, as well as an increase in tritium concentration in the solution, which, in their opinion, was caused by nuclear fusion of helium from deuterium. I studied structural changes and the physico-mechanical properties of materials under irradiation with hydrogen, deuterium and helium ions in a plasma discharge with hydrogen ion energies of less than 1 ke V deuterium as applied to the first wall of a thermonuclear reactor. Scientists themselves say that, according to their forecasts, it will be relatively easy to transform the discovery into a technology that can be used in practical needs – for heat, for example. Hagelstein gave official consent to become a laboratory supervisor and work in Ur FU for at least four months a year. Famous foreign scientists who supported the idea of creating a cold fusion laboratory in Ural Federal University: left MIT professor Peter Hagelstein and head of the Japanese state program NEDO cold fusion professor at Tohoku University Yashuhiro Iwamura. At the moment of deuterium loading, the second process of releasing additional heat begins, which is Qizb in duration and in magnitude.
This did not fit into the existing ideas of physicists at all, since such reactions could only be carried out at enormous energies. Velikhov, more than $ 40 billion has already been spent on these works in our country. These studies were carried out at a gas discharge installation. Including, there was a blackening of the X-ray film located outside the discharge chamber. However, they add, “there is still work to do.”In American scientific circles, the press conference in Utah did not cause a definite reaction. He said: “The message from New York is, of course, sensational. Then from Yashuhiro Iwamura, a professor at Tohoku University from Japan, who heads the Japanese cold fusion program (NEDO), I also received support for the idea of creating a laboratory in Ur FU. = 568.25 k J, and it significantly exceeds the process of hydride formation.
The opinion was that this data was the result of an error or a fraud. The practical implementation of this idea ran into extreme technical difficulties. Russia is participating in the ITER international fusion reactor development program, $20 billion is planned to be spent on the first stage only. Nuclear reactions of the synthesis and transmutation of elements in the Earth’s core, Proceedings of the 22nd Russian Conference on Cold Nuclear Transmutation of Chemical Elements and Ball Lightning, p. However, everyone said that this was not possible with ion energies of less than 1 Ke V.– Significant increase in additional elements ranging 10 -1000 times was found (– Isotopic deviation in materials (Pd, Ti, W, and U) and the increase in the additional impurity elements from 2 up to 100 times was discovered. Attention was drawn to the fact that it was arranged before other scientists were notified of the discovery, and before the discovery report was submitted for publication. Secondly, there is a suspicion that the practical benefits of the discovery will be much less than the authors predict. Further, a comment was published by Academician of the USSR Academy of Sciences Boris Borisovich Kadomtsev, a well-known specialist in plasma physics and controlled thermonuclear fusion. But the scientific information in it is too small for any definite conclusions. It is the second process that is nuclear, that is, its heat is generated due to nuclear processes.